astelehena, ekaina 11, 2012

Informazio referentziala izaten da arinagoa (aurre aditza), eta informazio berria izaten da pisuagoa (atze aditza)

Porbjörg Hróarsdóttir, an 2009ko artikulu bat (OV languages: Expressions of cues), du azaltzen nola islandieran joan zan aldatzen hitz-ordena asti SOV ki SVO ti arrazoi diskursivoak: informazio berria gero-ta gehiago joan zan kokatzen atze aditza.
I will illustrate how the grammar change in OI (islandiera zaharra) was due to a change in information structure. The loss of OV (objektua-aditza) in the grammar was caused by a prior language change that involved objects that express new information: These objects gradually gained a higher frequency in postverbal position. (Hróarsdóttir 2009:67)
The claim is that a language change in language use, namely the increased postverbal positioning of focused material led to a sudden change in grammar, ... (Hróarsdóttir 2009:67)
Informazio berria (prosodikoki enfatizatuagoa, fokalizatuagoa) da ematen gero-ta gehiago an azkena hon esaldia, behin ondo tematizatua: aditza izaten da gutxiago rematikoa ezen objektua, eta hobe joaten da aurre objektua afin mezua joan dadin irabazten rematikotasuna. Halaber, elementu pisuagoak (luzeagoak, konplexuagoak) jotzen dute alde kokatu atze elementu arinagoak:
It has been claimed that in various mixed word order languages, such as Hungarian, Finnish, Northern Sámi, Russian and Yiddish, the existing OV and VO-orders correlate with properties such as specificity, or "familiarity" of the object, or in other languages, topic-focus structure. (...). It has further been proposed that old information tends to precede new information and that light elements precede heavy elements. (Hróarsdóttir 2009:72)
Gainera bi joera horiek lotuta doaz: informazio referentziala izaten da arinagoa, eta informazio berria izaten da pisuagoa:
In sum, this means that that a shift property, or simply a change in language use, can lead to a grammar change;... It is often claimed that this is connected with the placement of heavy (old information is light, new information is heavier) and stressed material (an element that is stressed is part of the focus of the clause). (Hróarsdóttir 2009:79)
Subjektua izaten da tema (zeri buruz), aditza izaten da elementu rematiko transizional eta arina (zein ez dun eramaten estres prosodiko berezia), eta objektua izaten da parte rematikoena (prosodikoki estresatuena) eta pisuena (luzeena edo konplexuena), zein, baldintza orokorretan, dun jotzen alde kokatu an azken partea hon perpausa (nahiz ahal diran egon eragozpen intralinguistiko edo extralinguistikoak zein ahal duten oztopatu edo inkluso alderantzikatu tendentzia hori).